Sequentially mixing modes in an election survey

Oliver Lipps, Nicolas Pekari

Nº 2020-3



How to cite this article :

Lipps, O. & Pekari, N. (2020). Sequentially mixing modes in an election survey. FORS Working Paper Series, paper 2020-3. Lausanne: FORS. DOI: 10.24440/FWP-2020-00003

A different version of this paper has meanwhile been published as :

Lipps, O. & Pekari, N. (2021). Sequentially mixing modes in an election survey in Survey Methods: Insights from the Field. Retrieved from (DOI:10.13094/SMIF-2021-00003)

Keywords :

push to web survey, telephone follow-up, mail-paper follow-up, representation bias, voting behavior bias, election survey

Abstract :

In this paper, we analyze to what extent a sequential mixed mode survey, consisting of push-to-web, telephone and mail-paper modes, is able to improve representativeness in terms of socio-demographic variables and reduce bias in terms of voting behavior compared to a single mode survey. In addition, we study whether changes in mode lead to measurement error issues by focusing on income. We find that adding the telephone mode improves sample representation in terms of socio-demographic variables. Meanwhile, adding the paper mode does not show further improvements in this respect. However, adding the telephone, and in particular the paper mode, turn out to reduce bias in voting behavior when compared to official figures. As for measuring income, the web and the telephone mode perform similarly well. Finally, we find little evidence of measurement differences of income when the same respondents are interviewed first by web or telephone and subsequently by paper questionnaire.


© the authors 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons License